Chinese Zero to Hero
《中国》第2集:众声——朝气勃发的百家争鸣时代China EP2丨MGTV

Channel: 芒果TV纪录片 MGTV Documentary
在楚国首都
In the capital of Chu,
一个人的鼻尖上不慎溅了一点白石灰
one day, a man accidentally got few limes on his nose tip
那层白石灰
The lime layer was as thin
薄的
as the wing of flies
就像苍蝇的翅膀一样
这个郢都人
This Yingdu man loved to be clean
特别爱干净
便请石匠用板斧把它削掉
so he asked a stonecutter to cut the lime off with an axe
石匠笑了笑
The stonecutter laughed and
便拎起锋利的板斧
picked up his sharp axe
只听见一阵反腐声响过后
With a whiz of the axe
这个永都人的白石灰被削得干干净净
the white lime on the nose tip of the man was fully cut off
而他的鼻子却完好无损
While his nose stayed intact
宋国的国君听说此事盛情相邀
When hearing about this, the king of Song State cordially
请来那个石匠对他说
invited the stonecutter to the palace and said to him
也请你照样为我削一次,好吗
Would you please cut it for me the same way you did?
只见石匠
The stonecutter
又笑了笑
said with a smile
大王
Lord
我的确是这么削的
I did cut like that
但是
But
能让我这么削的那个人已经死了很久了
the man available for me to cut like that has been dead for a long time What do you mean?
呵呵
什么意思?
What does it mean?
这是一个寓言
This is a fable
是庄子路过他的好朋友
which was told by Zhuangzi when he
惠施的墓前时讲的
passed by the tomb of his good friend Hui Shi,
被众人口口相传
and it was passed down from mouth to mouth for generations
在那个时代人们喜欢用寓言表达思想
In that age, people liked to express their thoughts by fables
众声喧哗
To give different opinions Li Er Confucius Mo Di Mencius Zhuangzi Xunzi Li Si Han Fei Ying Zheng Liu Che Dong Zhongshu Sima Qian Ban Chao Sima Rui Wang Dao Tuoba Hong Xiao Yan Yuwen Tai Yang Jian Dugu Jialuo Abe no Nakamaro China
他叫墨翟
Mo Di His name is Mo Di
众声当中他的声音很响
Of all the voices, he has a strong voice
莫迪出生平民,做过牧童,学过木匠
Mo Di was born in a civilian family He worked as a shepherd boy and studied carpentry
对机械技术和自然科学
And he had a special love and research
怀有异于常人的热爱与钻研
studying mechanical technologies and natural sciences
他的著作中有专业性极强的实用技术与策略
His works include highly professional practical techniques and strategies
有器械的制作技艺
skills for device fabrication
也有攻击与防守的战场组织布局
as well as battlefield organization and deployment for attack and defense
墨翟做了人类历史上第一个小孔成像实验
Mo Di made the first small hole imaging experiment in human history
发现了一个重要的光学原理
and discovered an important optical principle
光在同一种介质里沿直线传播
That is, in a same medium light travels along a straight line
他对自然科学有着同时代人罕见的精神认知
He had the understanding and insights on natural sciences rarely seen in his time
它的抽象能力和严密的逻辑思维
His ability for abstract understanding and way of logical thinking
与他探索的力学声学
have been recorded
和数学知识一起被记载下来
together with the knowledge of mechanics, acoustics and mathematics that he explored,
开启了中国最早的科技理性
which initiated the earliest scientific and technological rationality in China
而墨翟也在这个过程中形成了自己的世界观
And Mo Di also formed his own view of world in such a process
墨翟曾求学于儒家是孔子的信徒
Mo Di studied in the Confucian School and was a disciple of Confucius
但渐渐的
But gradually
他开始成为儒家的批评者
he began to become a critic of Confucianism
认为儒家的观念华而不实
as he believed that the concepts of Confucianism were flashy
尤其是一些繁文缛节,非常不利于社会发展
especially some unnecessary formalities It's not conducive to social development
之后
Afterwards
他自立门户在各地聚众讲学
he established his own school and started to give public lectures
抨击诸侯国的暴政
criticize the tyranny of the vassal states
并将自己的技术经验传授给学生
and impart his own technical experience to the students
大批手工业者和下层世人开始狂热追随他
A large number of handicraftsmen and lower classes started to follow him with fanaticism
这是世界上最早的风筝,木鸳
This is the first kite in the world wooden kite (Mu Yuan)
他的创造者就是墨翟
and it was invented by Mo Di
墨翟门下
Under Mo Di
是一个纪律严明,苦行僧一般的组织
there was a strictly disciplined, ascetic-like organization
人称墨家
which was known as Mohist School
公元前四四零年夏天
In the summer of 440 B.C.
正在讲学的墨翟忽然听到一个消息
Mo Di was lecturing one day he suddenly heard a news
楚国要对宋国发动战争
that Chu State was about to launch a war against Song State
在战事频频的年月
In such years of frequent wars
这并不算太特别的事情
this was acutally nothing so special
但墨翟立刻做了两件事
But Mo Di did two things immdiately
第一
First
派三百精壮弟子前去宋国协助守城
he sent 300 physically strong followers to Song State to help with the defense
第二,自己动身前往楚国
Second he left for Chu State himself
墨翟昼夜兼程走了十天来到楚国国都
He travelled day and night for ten days before he reached the capital of Chu State
劝说楚王放弃攻打弱小的宋国
He persuaded the King of Chu to give up attacking weak Song State Lu Ban
楚王表示
King of Chu expressed
那不可能,因为当时最有名的工匠鲁班
it was impossible for him to give up as Luban, the most famous craftsman in the world at that time,
已经为他造好了,可以凌空而立的云梯
had built the scaling ladder that could stand up to the sky
那是前所未有的功成利器
It was an unprecedented tool for attacking
墨翟却自信地说,我有破解云梯之法
While Mo Di said with confidence that he had a way against the scaling ladder
楚王自然不会轻易相信
King of Chu absolutely would not believe his words
于是墨翟提议和鲁班模拟攻守战争
So Mo Di proposed to simulate the attack and defense with Lu Ban
此时的战争一发展到类机械化时代
The wars, at that time, had evolved to be similar to mechanized ones
成败的关键不在于士兵多寡
The key to success was not dependent on the number of soldiers
而在于谁掌握更强大
but who mastered more powerful and advanced equipment and tools
更先进的器械
鲁班发明过很多建筑工具和军械兵器
Lu Ban had invented numbers of construction tools and military weapons
以心灵手巧明动天下
He's well-known for his ingenuity in invention
楚王也因此而觉得胜算在握
Therefore, King of Chu had the confidence for success
结果
However
鲁班进攻了九次
Lu Ban was defeated by Mo Di
被莫迪击破了九次
for all the nine times of his attack
最后鲁班盯着墨翟说
In the end, Lu Ban, staring at Mo Di,
我懂得怎么赢你,可我不说
said "I know how to defeat you but I just won't say"
墨翟明白鲁班的意思是要杀了他
Mo Di understood that Lu Ban's meaning was to have him killed
他毫不畏惧的回应
He responded without fear
我的弟子已经手持墨家制造的器械
"Students of mine had been waiting in battle array in the capital of Song State
在宋国的都城严阵以待
with the tools made by us.
即便杀了我你也无法取胜
Even if I get killed, you could not win."
墨翟的才智态度和毋庸置疑的信念
Mo Di's intelligence and attitude as well as his firm belief
浇灭了楚王心中的战火
extinguished the fire in the heart of King of Chu for the war
最终
At last
楚王放弃了攻宋的想法
he gave up the idea of attacking Song State
一场箭在弦上的战争被墨翟化解
A war, on the verge of an arrow, was thus prevented by Mo Di
墨翟与宋国毫无利害关系
Mo Di had no personal interest with Song State
宋国也没有请他帮忙
and Song State never asked him for help
但他仍不惜冒着生命危险从中斡旋
But he still risked his life to mediate in between
墨翟提倡“非攻”
Mo Di advocated "no-attacking"
反对一切战争
and opposed all kinds of wars
他信奉“兼爱”
He believed in "universal love"
不分远近亲疏,不分贵贱
Regardless of kinship and alienation social status
不分地域国别
region and state
对所有人都是以平等的爱
All people should be given equal love
这便是
This is
兼爱
"universal love"
从楚国回乡
When passing through Song State
途经宋国时
on his way back home
天下起滂沱大雨
it started to rain very heavily
墨翟想到巷子里去避雨
Mo Di wanted to take shelter in an alley
守巷口的人却把他赶走了
but was driven away by the person guarding the alley
没有人知道
No one ever knew
这个人刚刚为宋国解除了一次强大的威胁
this person just relieved Song State of a significant crisis
莫迪不以为意回到雨中
Mo Di didn't take it seriously He went back to the rain
踩着草鞋踽踽独行
and kept walking alone in straw sandals
这便是墨家精神
This is the spirit of Mohism:
以天下为己任
Taking the world as his own responsibility
不计个人得失
regardless of personal gains and losses
为正义
For justice,
为苍生赴汤蹈火,死不回头
for lives of common people Willing to go through difficulties without looking back
当墨翟告别这个世界后
After Mo Di's death,
遍布各国的墨家弟子,把他的学说推向巅峰
his followers all over the states pushed his theory to its peak
越来越壮大的墨家
Mohism that was growing stronger
成为儒家的主要反对者
became the key opponent of Confucianism Many years later,
墨家的“兼爱”与“非公”并没有阻挡天下的纷争
"Universal Love" and "No Attack" of Mohism didn't stop the disputes among states
接连而至的战火,把中国带入一个新的历史时期
The successive wars had brought China into a new historical era
战国
the Warring States Period
战国的仗打了一百多年后
After over 100 years of the Warring States Period,
一个新的思想家登场了
a new thinker named Meng Ke (Mencius)
他叫孟柯,儒家的继承者
Mencius appeared on the historical stage He was the successor of Confucianism
孟柯是战国时代的邹国人
Mencius was born in Zou State in the Warring States period
距离孔子家乡鲁国不远
not far from Confucius' hometown of Lu State
用他的话说就是“近圣人之居”
In his own words, he was "near the residence of the sage"
和孔子一样
Like Confucius,
孟柯也是幼年丧父,身世坎坷
Mencius lost his father in his childhood and he had a tough life experience
学成之后
After he completed his learning,
他选择一边教书一边游历
he chose to teach while traveling
坚定不移的捍卫和发扬儒家学说
He defended for and carried forward the Confucianism in a completely immovable manner
和孔子周游列国时相比
Compared with Confucius' traveling around the states,
一切如此相似
what Mencius did was so similar
一切却又大不相同
but in another respect, quite different
孟轲行之所至是随处可见的战争废墟
Where Mencius went was full of the ruins of war everywhere
孟轲目之所睹
What Mencius saw
是毫无节制的征战杀伐
was the unrestrained fighting and killing
他听到无数苦难的声音和心跳声交叠在一起
He heard the cries of countless sufferings overlapping heartbeats
填满胸膛
which filled his chest Zhou Dynasty
此时的中国正处于历史上第一个大分裂时期
China, at that time, was in its first epoch of separtion in history
周王室名存实亡
The Zhou royal family was in name only
经过旷日持久的争霸和兼并
After a long period of struggle for hegemony and annexation,
春秋初期一百多个诸侯国到战国时只剩下二十多个
only more than 20 states survived in the Warring States Period from more than 100 vassal states in the early Spring and Autumn Period
其中实力最强的有七国
Among which seven were the most powerful ones
韩、赵、魏、齐、楚、燕、秦
Han, Zhao, Wei, Qi, Chu, Yan and Qin
“战国七雄”的格局逐渐形成
The pattern of the "Seven Powerful States" gradually came into its shape
孟珂已经年过四十
Mencius was at his age of over 40
他将旅途中最重要的一站选在了齐国
He chose Qi State as the most important station in his journey of life
吸引他的
What attracted him
是一个叫稷下学宫的地方
was a place called Jixia Academy
那是齐国国君下令在临淄建立的一所高规格的学院
It was a high-level institution established in Linzi with the order of the King of Qi,
广招天下士人
It widely recruited scholars from all over China
“稷”
"Ji"
是临淄的一座城门
was a gate of Linzi
稷下学工由此得名
from which Jixia Academy got its name
乱世让很多人流离失所
The troubled times made countless people homeless
却也给了知识分子一展才智的舞台
but also gave intellectuals a stage to demonstrate their talents
为壮大实力
In order to strengthen their power,
各国执政者打破贵族政治体制,敞开大门,沿揽人才
the rulers of all states broke the aristocratic political system and opened the door to recruit more talented people
稷下学宫就是当时最有影响力的讲学议政之所
Jixia Academy became the most influential place for lecturing and political discussions at that time
这是中国历史上第一所官方主办
It was the first high level learning institution in Chinese history that was officially sponsored
却由民间学者主持的高等学府
but hosted by non-governmental scholars
知识界的领袖云集在此,纷纷登台
All the intellectual leaders gathered here and gave lectures one after another
宽松的氛围
The relaxed atmosphere
让各种不同的思想
allowed different thoughts
都得以自由抒发
to be freely voiced
那是一个生机勃勃的年代
It was a vibrant era
人人都想发出自己的声音
when everyone wanted to make their own voice
后人为他起了个名字
Later generations gave it a name,
百家争鸣
"Contention of a hundred schools of thought"
稷下学宫
Jixia Academy
成了百家争鸣的中心
became the center of "Contention of hundred schools of thought"
尽管社稷崩塌,政局动荡
Despite the collapse of the state and the turmoil of the political situation
但每一个拥有情怀和抱负的人
Everyone with ideal and aspirations
都并不沮丧,他们为理想而生
was not depressed They lived for their ideals
为信仰而奔走天下
and ran around the world for their beliefs
孟轲很快意识到
Mencius soon realized that
在这里一个人若不大声疾呼
at this place if one would not speak out
就没有人能听到他的见解
no one could hear his opinion
与儒家争鸣的对手中
Among the opponents of the Confucian School
以墨家和道家扬朱学派的势力最大
Mohism, Taoism and Yang-Zhu School were the most powerful
两派相互攻击,但影响都很大
They attacked each other but both had great influence
以至于孟柯感慨道
Mencius even lamented that
天下之言不归于阳即归墨
if the words of all states would not belong to Yang they would go to Mohism Definitely
他不会站在任何一边
he would not be on either side
很快
Pretty soon
孟轲就想好了批驳他们
Mencius determined his own way to criticize them
并且宣扬儒家学说的方式
and spread Confucianism
稷下学宫的庭院里辩论随时都会发生
In the courtyard of Jixia Academy debates would happen at any time
焦点问题往往就是两个
The focus were often on two questions:
该怎样治国
How to rule a state?
该怎样做人
and how to behave as a person?
诸子百家为无道的天下开出了各自的药方
Various schools of thought made their own prescriptions for China not governed according to natural laws at that time
儒家倡导仁爱
The Confucian School advocated benevolence
墨家信奉兼爱
while Mohism believed in universal love
儒家所倡导的仁爱
Benevolence advocated by the Confucian School
是一种建立在血缘亲情基础上的爱
was a kind of love based on blood
分亲疏远近
and kinship
并以此建立社会秩序,实现天下大同
which could be used to establish social order and achieve universal harmony
而莫家信奉的兼爱则要求世人如己,爱人如己
While Universal Love believed by Mohism required that people should be treated equally loved equally
国与国,人与人
States and people
都应该用平等无私的爱去照亮彼此
should be equal in nature To illuminate each other with selfless love
在辩论场上
When it comes to debate
只有金刚怒目的讲演和震聋发聩的语句
only the fierce speech and stunning words
才有可能被人记住
could be remembered by people
孟轲要让儒家的声音成为洪钟大吕
Mencius wanted the voice of the Confucian School to become the resonant bells
孟柯和人们记忆中中庸迂腐的儒者没有一点相似
Mencius shared no resemblance with the other Confucian scholars who were mean and pedantic in people's mind
他阳刚自信,画风犀利
He was masculine and confident and his words were sharp
到了稷下学宫没多久
Not long after he arrived at Jixia Academy
就以好辩而声名鹊起
he became famous for his eloquence
不出所料
As expected
他对杨朱和莫家的大声批评,一鸣惊人
his loud criticism of Yang-Zhu and Mohism made its mark
杨氏为我
Yang for oneself
是无君也
leads to no ruler
墨氏兼爱
Mohism for universal love
是无父也
leads to no father
无君无父,乃禽兽也
Ones that have no ruler or father are no different from animals
尽管儒家和墨家唇枪舌剑,交锋不断
Although Confucianists and Mohists had verbal battles and constantly attacked each other
但二者都有坚定的目标和追求
They both had firm goals and pursuits
也都有明确的原则和底线
as well as well-defined principles and bottom lines
在那个道义不常被人提起的时代
In that era when morality was not often mentioned
这样的坚持弥足珍贵
such persistence was so precious
孟轲言辞激烈,只是为了传播
Mencius uttered fierce remarks just to spread
一个平和温暖的理想
a peaceful and heart-warming ideal
他将孔子的一个“仁”字
He developed the word "Ren' of Confucius
发展成切实可行的政治方法,“仁政”
to a practical and feasible political method "Benevolent Governance"
主张用老吾老以及人之老
He advocates "expend the respect of the aged in one's family to that of other families"
幼吾幼以及人之幼这样的仁心治理国家
and "expand the love of the young ones in one's family to that of other families"
他认为执政者应该亲民,与民同乐
He thought that state rulers should be close to the people and enjoy with the people
唯有得民心才有可能得天下
Only by winning the hearts of the people could state rulers win the world
民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻
"The people are the most important the state the second while the monarch the least"
战国风云下
During the Warring States Period
孟轲的理念如此稀有珍贵
Mencius' theory was so rare and precious
但显然又那么不合时宜
But it's obviously expressed at such an inopportune moment
所以
Therefore,
尽管在稷下学工获得了一些声望
although Mencius gained some fame in Jixia Academy,
当政者齐威王却并没有启用他
King Wei, the state ruler of Qi did not put him in the right position
孟轲决定离开齐国
Mencius decided to leave Qi State
为心中的理想寻求安放之地
and sought a place for his ideal
为了让自己的观点被更多人听见
In order to make their views known by more people, people of that era
这个时代的人们选择用讲故事的方式表达思想
chose to express themselves in the way of telling stories
其中有一个人故事讲的最好
One of such person who told stories the best
一天他做了一个奇怪的梦
One day he had a weird dream
梦里他变成一只蝴蝶
in which he became a butterfly
醒来后他分不清究竟是自己梦中变成了蝴蝶
After he woke up he couldn't tell clearly whether he had become the butterfly
还是蝴蝶,梦中变成了自己
or the butterfly had become him in his dream
他的名字叫
The name of the person is Zhuang Zhou
庄周
Zhuangzi
庄周年轻时曾担任宋国的漆元小吏
When Zhuang Zhou was young he once served as an inferior official at Qiyuan in Song State
后来宋康王发动宫廷政变,诸兄篡位
Then King Kang of Song launched a palace coup and usurped his elder brother's throne
他便打消从政的念头
Zhuang Zhou gave up the idea of entering politics
辞去职务回乡靠编织草鞋为生
He resigned and returned to his hometown to make a living by making straw sandals
一个原本寂寂无名的乡野村夫
A villager unknown to people
在天地中窥见了自然的奥秘
had discovered the mystery of nature
春秋时期老子的追随者创立道家
In the Spring and Autumn Period the followers of Lao Zi founded Taoism
他们用道来解释宇宙万物的构成和变化
and used Tao to explain the composition and changes of all things in the universe
庄周自成一派成为道家的重要代表
Zhuang Zhou established a school of his own thoughts and became an important representative of Taoism
他思想中的智慧与机锋
With wisdom and tact in his thoughts
他用意象构建的哲学世界
and the philosophical world constructed by his images
让中国人用成百上千年的时间
inspired Chinese to use thousands of years
去猜测、领悟以及误解
to speculate comprehend and misunderstand
庄周大概是最喜欢鱼的哲学家
Zhuang Zhou is probably the philosopher who likes fish most
他常常钓鱼吃鱼
He often went fishing and ate fish
也常想象自己就是一条鱼,自由自在的游走于天地之间
and often imagined himself as a fish swimming freely in between the world
庄周说
Zhuang Zhou said
相濡以沫,不如相忘于江湖
"Rather than moisten each other with damp and spittle it would be far better forget themselves in their native rivers and lakes"
没钱了,他就去卖草鞋
No money, he went to sell straw sandals
肚子饿了他就去钓鱼,身无常物,却逍遥快乐
Hungry, he went fishing Nothing he had but happy he was
他西游魏
He traveled to Wei State in the west
东游鲁,南游楚,北游赵
Lu State in the east Chu State in the south and Zhao State in the north
飞扬无边的想象力,让他写出了独一无二的文章
His boundless imagination enabled him to write unique articles
鸟兽虫鱼都被他讲成了故事
He told stories of birds, animals, insects and fish
那是一个无拘无束的
In him, it was an interesting
有趣的灵魂
and unrestrained soul
一天
One day
庄周来到魏国看望老朋友惠施
Zhuang Zhou came to visit his old friend Hui Shi in Wei State
此时
At that time
惠施刚做了为国的国相
Hui Shi just became the prime minister of Wei State
有人对他说
Someone told Hui Shi that
庄周也是来谋取相位的
Zhuang Zhou came for the same position
惠施吓了一跳
Hui Shi was frightened
连忙派人搜捕庄周
and sent people to hunt Zhuang Zhou down
搜了三天三夜庄周却突然出现在他面前
After three days and nights Zhuang Zhou suddenly showed up in front of him
他给老朋友讲了个故事
Zhuang Zhou told his old friend a story
南方有种鸟,叫鹓雏
There was a kind of bird in the south, named Yuan Chu
你知道吗
You know?
这种鸟不是梧桐树就不栖息
Such bird rests on no trees but Buttonwood tree
不是竹子所结的果实就不吃
Eats nothing but the fruit of bamboo
不是甘泉就不饮
Drinks nothing but sweet spring water
他从南海飞往北海时
On its way flying from the South Sea to the North Sea
路上遇到一只猫头鹰,嘴里叼了只腐烂的老鼠
it meets an owl with a rotten mouse in its mouth
猫头鹰以为鹓雏是来抢食的
The owl thinks that Yuan Chu comes to snatch its food
就对着鹓雏大叫一声
and it yells at Yuan Chu to scare it
现在
Now
你也要为了你的为国的相位
For your position of prime minister ,
来吓唬我吗
are you also going to scare me?
惠施无言以对
Hui Shi had nothing to say
即便如此
Even so
庄周仍然把会是当做最好的朋友
Zhuang Zhou still regarded Hui Shi as his best friend
这就是庄周
This is Zhuang Zhou
一个喜欢用寓言表达对世界看法的哲人
a philosopher who likes to use fables to express his views on the world
庄周从未造访稷下学宫
Zhuang Zhou never visited Jixia Academy
也从不参与公开场合的口舌之争
and never participated in any public debate
不过他很喜欢与惠施辩论
However He liked to debate with Hui Shi
有一天庄周和惠施来到濠水边
One day Zhuang Zhou and Hui Shi came to the side of Haoshui River
你看
Look! Fish in the river are swimming very leisurely
河里的鱼游得很从容
他们真是快乐
How happy they are!
你又不是鱼,你怎么知道他们快乐
You are not a fish How do you know they are happy?
你又不是我,你怎么知道
While you are not me How do you know
我不知道鱼的快乐
that I don't know about the happiness of fish?
我不是你,确实不能说了解你
I'm not you I really can't say I know you
但你也不是鱼
But you are not a fish
那你也一定不了解鱼的快乐
so you must not know the happiness of fish
你一开始就问我是怎么知道鱼的快乐,那说明
You asked me at the beginning how can I know the happiness of fish That means you have acquiesced in the fact that
你已经默认了,我知道鱼是快乐的
I know the happiness of fish
庄周喜欢辩论
Zhuang Zhou liked debate
但他却认为辩论的最高境界就是什么都不说
But he thought the highest realm of debate would be to say nothing
谢谢你
什么都不说
Say nothing
继承老子一波的庄周
Zhuang Zhou, who inherited Lao Zi's theory
推崇人与人之间平淡质朴的关系
respected the plain and simple relationship between people
他说
He said that
君子之交淡如水
the friendship between men of virtue is light like water
老子说过
Lao Zi said
上善若水
The greatest kindness is like water
庄周同样喜欢水的虚静,恬淡
Zhuang Zhou also liked the emptiness and tranquility of water
山水之间,他畅想着
In the mountains and by the rivers he kept imagining that
天地与我并生,而万物与我唯一的逍遥游
"heaven and earth exist side by side with me" and "all things are one with me"
就在庄周寄情于自然的时候
When Zhuang Zhou placed his love on nature,
孟轲正怀揣儒家理想
With his Confucian ideals
辗转于一个又一个国君之间
Mencius visited state rulers one by one
他想尽自己最大的努力改变世界
As he wanted to change the world as best as he could do
孟轲喜欢循循善诱
Mencius liked to give systematic guidance
从浅显的道理入手
starting from the simple truth
一点一点把话题引向深处
and leading to the in-depth view little by little
在魏国,他用杀人做类比
In Wei State he used killing people as an analogy
希望能击中魏惠王的心
in the hope to hit the heart of King Hui of Wei
用刀子杀人和用棍子杀人有什么不同吗
Killing with a knife and with a stick Is there any difference?
没什么不同
No difference
那么用刀子杀人和用政治杀人有什么不同吗
What about killing with a knife and with politics? Is there any difference?
没有
No
厨房里有肥肉,马厩里有健马
You have fat meat in the kitchen and strong horses in the stable
可是百姓却面带饥色,野外躺着饿死的人
While the people outside are hungry with pale look People starved to death are lying in the wild
这就是政治杀人
This is killing people by politics
当政者
How could the ruling class
还有什么资格做人民的父母
be qualified to parent the people?
孟轲用心良苦
Mencius had a good wish
但魏惠王希望听到的
But this
并不是这些
was not what King Hui of Wei wanted to hear
当时各国国军希望听到的
Neither for
都不是这些
all of the other state rulers
眼前是弱肉强食的现实环境
It was an era when the powerful exploited the weaker in reality
是各种迫在眉睫或隐藏于暗处的危险
full of variety of imminent or hidden dangers
他们急于找到快速强大的良策,以避免灭国之灾
They were eager to find a good plan about how to become strong quickly to avoid their states from being eliminated
正义
Justice, benevolence and affinity to people
仁爱、亲民
在国君们看来
in the eyes of state rulers
那是遥远虚幻的
are something far away, illusory
并且毫无力量
and powerless
这是各国关系最复杂
That was a period of the most complicated relations among states
军事最活跃,局势最莫测的一个时期
the most active military affairs and the most unpredictable situation
战国七雄中西边的秦国和东边的齐国最为强盛
Among the seven powerful states Qin State in the west and Qi State in the east were the most powerful ones,
形成东西对峙之势
forming a confrontation between the east and west
于是各国之间形成了两种外交关系
So There were two kinds of diplomatic relations among all the states
一种是南北向的弱国结盟
One was the alliance of the weak states in the north-south direction
合成一条纵线联合起来抗击齐国或秦国
which formed a vertical line becoming united to fight against Qi State or Qin State
这被称为“合纵”
This is Called "Vertical Alliance"
另一种是位于中间的弱国和两大强国之一结盟
The other was that the weak states in between formed an alliance with one of the two most powerful states
西连秦或东连齐
either with Qin in the west or with Qi in the east
连成一条横线
forming a horizontal line
攻击其他弱国
to attack other weak states
这被称为“连横”
This is called "Horizontal Alliance"
而那些鼓吹合纵或连横的游士
And those who advocated vertical or horizontal alliance
如张仪、苏秦、公孙衍等
for example, Zhang Yi, Su Qin, Gongsun Yan, and more
就有了一个特别的称谓
were given a special title
纵横家
Political Strategists
纵横家,在诸侯混战中如鱼得水
Political Strategists were lobbying, like duck in the water, among the states
但儒者孟轲不关心异国如何打败另一国
but Mencius as a Confucian, did not care how one state could defeat the other
他更同情人民的疾苦
Instead, he sympathized with the sufferings of the people
一次次碰壁后
After hitting the wall again and again,
孟轲再次将目光投向齐国
Mencius turned his eyes to Qi State once again
这个创建了稷下学宫的国家应该是与众不同的
For him, this state that founded Jixia Academy should be different from others
他觉得有必要再试一次
He felt it was necessary to try again King Xuan of Qi
这是孟克第二次来到齐国
This was the second time Mencius came to Qi State
跟上一回遭受冷遇不同
Different from the last time
这次他似乎来对了
he seemed to be right this time
他遇到一个看上去很赏识他的国君
He met a new state ruler who looked very appreciative of him
新任国君齐宣王,是个雄心勃勃的年轻人
King Xuan of Qi was an ambitious young man
对孟轲十分尊敬,将他奉为客卿
who respected Mencius very much and treated him as a distinguished alien minister
孟轲以为机遇终于到了
Mencius thought that his opportunity had finally arrived
他与齐宣王论政
He discussed politics with King Xuan of Qi
直陈社会积弊
directly pointed out the accumulated social problems
大谈仁政主张
and talked about the advocacy of benevolence government
场面有些尴尬,孟轲慷慨陈词
That scene was a bit awkward Mencius often spoke in such excitement
齐宣王有时竟无言以对
but King Xuan of Qi sometimes had nothing to say
只好顾左右而言他
only talked other things
尽管常被问得狼狈不堪
In spite of the embarrassment of being so questioned
齐宣王对孟轲依然算得上宽容
King Xuan of Qi was still tolerant of Mencius
在他眼里
In his eyes,
孟轲是思想的先驱和贤德的楷模
Mencius was a pioneer of thought and a model for man of virtue
他希望自己的臣民都以孟轲为榜样
He hoped that all his subjects would follow the example of Mencius
但是
But
一心称霸的国君,不会有兴趣整天谈论仁义道德
A state ruler who was determined to seek hegemony would not be interested in discussing benevolence, justice and morality all the time
另有一个流派的知识和主张
While the knowledge and ideas of another school of thought
都更加实用有效
became more practical and effective
齐宣王视其为振兴齐国的利器
and was regarded by King Xuan of Qi as a sharp weapon to revitalize Qi State
那就是兵家
That is Millitary Strategists
兵家隐藏在战争背后
The millitary strategists, who hided behind the wars
运筹帷幄,决胜千里
devising strategies and manipulating the wars
他们是战国时代不可或缺的狠角色
played indispensable role in the Warring State Period
齐国先后出过两位著名的兵家代表
Qi State had two famous military strategists successively
一位是春秋晚期的孙武
One was Sun Wu in the late Spring and Autumn Period
代表作孙子兵法被尊为兵学盛典
whose representative works was The Art of War famed as the Military Classics
他的后代孙膑同样是兵家传奇
His descendant Sun Bin was also a legendary figure of military strategists
孙膑主张以进攻为主的战略
Sun Bin advocated the strategy of giving priority to attack
提出以寡胜众以弱胜强的战法
and put forward the tactics of defeating the masses with few and defeating the strong with the weak
这才是齐宣王心中可以雄霸天下的力量
That was the power that could make one dominating in the mind of King Xuan of Qi
一天
One day
孟柯又来拜见其宣王
Mencius came to visit King Xuan of Qi again
他试图继续游说齐宣王放弃占领燕国的念头
He attempted to persuade King Xuan of Qi to give up upon his idea of occupying Yan State
公元前三一五年燕国发生内乱
In 315 B.C. An internal unrest took place in Yan State
齐国趁机派兵伐燕
Qi State took the opportunity to send troops for attack
抑郁吞并燕国
with the intention to annex Yan State
齐宣王曾请教孟轲的意见
King Xuan of Qi used to ask Mencius' opinion
问他能否取胜
if he could win the war against Yan State
孟轲回答
Mencius answered
燕民乐则取之,燕民不乐则勿取
Attack Yan State, if the people of Yan State likes Don't attack Yan State, if the people there don't like it
但齐宣王早已有了自己的决定
But King Xuan of Qi had long made his decision
他只是希望获得这位闲人的支持之名
He just hoped to have the support from this man of virtue
孟轲想要再劝
Mencius wanted to continue with his persuasion
齐宣王不想再听
but King Xuan of Qi wouldn't take his advice
在齐国群臣看来
In the view of the officials in Qi State,
孟轲口中的民贵君轻,仁者无敌
Mencius' views that the people is superior to the state rulers and the benevolent are invincible
无疑是可笑的,不识时务的
were undoubtedly ridiculous and ignorant of current affairs
孟轲意识到自己的期待再次落空
Mencius realized that he failed in his anticipation again
他向齐宣王请辞
He applied from King Xuan of Qi to resign and leave
齐宣王表示挽留
King Xuan of Qi asked him to stay
被他谢绝了
but he refused
孟轲似乎去意已决
He seemed to have made up his mind to leave
走到齐国边境时
When he came to the border of Qi State
孟轲突然停了下来
Mencius suddenly stopped
他停留了三天
He stayed there for three days
这可能是他一生中最漫长的三天
which could be the longest three days in his life
很难再遇到一个像齐宣王这样礼遇自己的国君了
As he knew, it would be impossible to meet a state ruler who treated him as courteously as King Xuan of Qi did
一旦离开,毕生的理想将再无实现的机会
Once he left there would be no chance to realize his lifelong dream
只要齐宣王还有实行仁政的可能
As long as there was the possibility that King Xuan of Qi would implement benevolent governance
哪怕希望再渺茫
even with only a slim chance
他都愿意等待
he was willing to wait
齐宣王的确想把孟克留在身边
King Xuan of Qi indeed wanted to keep Mencius around
但就像其他诸侯一样
But just like other state rulers
他也承认孟轲的主张“迂远而阔于事情”
he also admitted that Mencius' view was something far away, illusory and mistimed
各国都在变法图强
All the states were trying to reform and strengthen themselves
哪有时间留给收效缓慢的仁政
How could there be any time given for a benevolent government that would be slow to take effect?
第三天的黑夜降临
By the night of the third day,
孟轲依然没有收到任何消息
Mencius didn't receive any news
睡意恍惚中
In his sleepy trance
他感觉一切似幻似真
he felt that everything was like a dream
曾经的意气风发
The high spirit that he had in the past days
与梦想背道而驰的现实
The reality that went against his ideal
最后的一线希望
The last glimmer of hope
以及大失所望
and the final disappointment
孟轲知道
Mencius knew
没必要再做无谓的等待了
that there would be no need to wait
弟子充虞见他闷闷不乐问道
His student Chong Yu noticed that Mencius was unhappy and asked Mencius
夫子不是说过
Teacher, didn't you say
君子不怨天,不由人
that a superior man would not complain about heaven and not grudge against other people?
孟轲轻叹一声,答道
Mencius replied with a sigh
此一时也
I said that then
彼一时也
but times had changed now
太阳再次升起时,孟轲离开了齐国
When the sun rose again the next day Mencius left Qi State
他想也许是天下大治的时期还没有到
He thought that maybe the time for great order throughout the land had not come yet
那就继续走下去吧
So the journey had to continue
如果要平治天下,当今之世
If anyone wants to govern the state peacefully nowadays
舍我其谁
no one but I could do that
孟轲走过的路
The way that Mencius took
悲壮但豪迈
was tragic but heroic
又一瞬间,孟轲仿佛看到
For a moment Mencius seemed to see Confucius
他用这一生去追随的孔子就走在他的前方
whom he spent his whole life to follow was walking right in front of him
或许先识孔子也走过同样的路
Perhaps his teacher Confucius went the same way
孟轲相信
Mencius believed that
终将有人继往开来
someone after him would carry forward the cause and forge ahead into the future
虽千万人无往矣
Going against the prevailing trend
孟轲不幸赶上了一个崇尚武力的时代
Mencius, unfortunately lived in an era of advocating military force
在诸侯国纷纷追求“霸道”
Under the background that all the states pursued hegemony
而非“王道”的时代背景下
rather than benevolent government
他竭力推行的“仁政”
The benevolent government he tried hard to carry out
还没有可以落地生根的土壤
had no soil to take root
但孟轲也并非全然不幸
But Mencius was not entirely unfortunate
在富有创造力的壮年
In his prime age of creativity
他发现了自己此生的使命
he found his mission in his life
这是莫大的幸事
That was such a great fortune for him
二十多年游历
During more than 20 years of his traveling
他收获的
he had not only gained frustration
并非只有挫败
对使命担当的全力以赴,虽然万分艰苦
His exertion to commitment and mission though extremely hard
却也充盈了他的精神世界
enriched his spiritual world
此后的岁月
After that
孟轲回到家乡
Mencius went back to his hometown
孟轲和先师孔子的命运轨迹仿佛一再重叠
The fate of Mencius and his teacher Confucius seemed to overlap again and again
同样的生不逢时
They were the same born out of time
理想被现实撞得粉碎
with ideals smashed by the cruel reality
孟轲也保持了和孔子同样的通达
Mencius still maintained the same thorough understanding in things as Confucius did
达则兼济天下
One endeavors to benefit the world when in position
穷则独善其身
and devotes himself to elevate his cultivation while cornered by circumstances
孔子留下坦荡荡的君子之风
Confucius left the later generations the style of being a man of virtue
孟轲坚定的修炼浩然正气
and Mencius firmly practiced the spirit of being noble and upright
他们从未放弃过自我人格的修养
They never gave up the cultivation of their own personality
之后2000多年
In over 2000 years after
做一个君子,成为中国读书人的毕生追求
to be a man of virtue had become the lifelong pursuit of Chinese scholars
除了继续教书,孟珂和一众弟子
In addition to continuing his teaching Mencius and his disciples
把自己关于政治、教育、哲学
wrote a book about their own ideas on politics, education
伦理的思想观点写成了一本书
philosophy and ethics
《孟子》
the Works of Mencius
春秋战国之际
During the Spting and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period
有孔子弟子及再传弟子编纂的论语已经成书
the Analects complied by Confucius' disciples and their successors complied a book
和孟子一起成为后世儒家必修的“孔孟之道”
Together with the Works of Mencius they both became "the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius" and compulsory courses for Confucian in later generations
孟轲乐观的说
Mencius stated optimistically
父母俱在、兄弟无故
both parents and brothers being all alive and healthy
一乐也
That is the first type of pleasure
仰不愧于天,俯不作于人
Neither being ashamed under the heaven nor abashed in front of other people
二乐也
That is the second type of pleasure
得天下英才而教育之三乐也
Being able to educate the talented people from around the world That is the third type of pleasure
被后人铭记的“君子三乐”
That are kept by the later generations The "Three Pleasures of a man of virtue"
由此而来
comes from it
天将降大任于斯人也
Before the god assigns an important responsibility on a person
必先苦其心志,劳其筋骨,饿其体肤,空乏其身
the first thing the god does is to temper his will power fatigue his muscles and bones starve his stomach and destitute his body
这是孟轲留下的千古名言
This is a famous saying left by Mencius through the ages
这也是他跌宕人生的真实写照
And it's also a true portrayal to all the ups and downs of his life In 289 B.C., Mencius died
濮水边
By the side of Pushui River
庄周又在钓鱼
Zhuang Zhou was fishing again
两个楚国使者带着珍珠玉帛
Two envoys from Chu State came with pearls, jade and silk
奉楚威王之命来请庄周出仕
with the order of King Wei of Chu to invite Zhuang Zhou to
而且直接许以宰相职位
take the position of prime minister
庄周的肚子饿得咕咕直叫
Zhuang Zhou was quite starved
他看了看一无所获的鱼筐
He looked at the empty fish basket
对楚人讲了个故事
and told the envoys from Chu State a story Zhuangzi
我听说楚王有只神龟已经死了三千多年了
I heard that King of Chu had a divine turtle which had been dead for over three thousand years
楚王仍将他用布包着
But King of Chu still had it wrapped in cloth
用竹盒装着,珍藏于庙堂之内
and packed in the bamboo box enshrined in the temple
请问这只龟是宁愿死了
Can you tell me would this turtle rather die
留下骨头让人尊崇的
with his bones left for worship?
还是宁愿活着托着尾巴自由自在的在烂泥中爬行
or stay alive crawling with its tail in the mud freely?
楚人想了想回答
The envoys from Chu State answered after thinking for a second
愿意拖着尾巴在烂泥中爬行
It would rather crawl freely with its tail in the mud
他们已经知道庄周的答案
They had known Zhuang Zhou's answer
进则儒,退则道
Stepping into the society, it is Confucism Retreating from the society, it is Taoism
就这样儒与道成为中国历代知识分子的两重选择
That's it Confucism and Taoism became the two choices of Chinese intellectuals of all ages
如果说孟科教导世人
If Mencius taught scholars
如何在世事沉浮之中保持赤子之心
how to keep a pure heart in the ups and downs of the world
那么庄周则为诗意者开辟了一条心灵的归路
While Zhuang Zhou explored a way for the frustrated to return to their original intention
他们二人平生是否相见后人无从得知
It is impossible to know whether they met each other in their lifetime
唯一可以确定的是
The only thing that we can be sure is that
他们穿越庙堂,行过原野,老在江湖
they had crossed through the politics walked through the wilderness and in the river and lake
最终都在内心找到了生命的归处
And finally found their home in their own heart
创立于乱世的稷下学宫
Jixia Academy, founded in the troubled times
很快就在战火中衰败
soon decayed in the wars
当后人凝视诸子百家的舞台
When later generations gaze at the stage of various schools of thought,
无不为那段时光的丰盈和璀璨所震撼
all are astonished by the richness and brilliance of that period of time
在那个众生喧哗的年代
In that noisy era,
中国诞生了一大批不同观念不同主张的学术流派
a large number of academic schools with different thoughts and opinions emerged in China
波澜起伏,蔚为壮观
with one climax following another looking to be very magnificent
广为流传的至少有十家
There were at least ten academic schools that were widely expanded
他们在思辨中创造出令人目眩神迷的言语与故事
They created dazzling words and stories in their speculation
留下了恒久流传的文化烙印
and left us the everlasting cultural imprints
由孔子和老子阐发的中国原声思想
The Chinese original thoughts expounded by Confucius and Laozi have been evolving
沿着星河变幻的轨迹向前演进
along the changing track of time
在纷繁复杂的社会大潮中
In the complex social tide
在无休无止的观点论争中
and endless argument of thoughts
在苦难中
in suffering
在希望中
in hope
许多质朴而深邃的见解逐渐生根发芽、成长壮大
many simple and profound opinions have gradually taken their roots and grown up
直至结出硕果
until they've been fruitful
有多少死亡
How many deaths there have been
就有多少心声
how many new lives there have been
那些喷薄而出的折丝和激情
Those philosophies and passions that have come up in a gushing manner
如同新生命的蓬勃律动
are just like the vigorous rhythm of a new life
一切才刚刚开始
Everything has just begun
却无比新鲜
but it looks extremely fresh
无比生动
and vivid
他们的自由飞扬
Their confidence and free wills
为中国文化
have endowed Chinese culture
注入了长久的自信和从容
with long-term confidence and calmness
他们的声音
Their voices
穿过战火纷飞的年代
have gone through the era of wars
穿过喧嚣与沉寂
through the chaos and silence
直击中国人的心灵深处
and directly hit the heart of the Chinese people
数百年的战乱纷争即将结束
Hundreds of years of wars and disputes are coming to an end
无数迥异的个人命运
Different destinies of countless individuals
汇入历史的滚滚洪流中
merge into the long river of history
背负着各自的使命和愿望
Shouldering their own missions and aspirations,
承载着先人的思想和理想
carrying the thoughts and ideals of the ancestors,
一个崭新的国家盎然诞生
a new country is born with pride
统一的中国正蓄势待发
A unified China is ready to gear up The misunderstood "King of Chu liking a slender waist" Many people think that King of Chu liking a slender waist means King of Chu likes females with a slender waist. But it is not true As recorded in Mozi, "In the past, King Ling of Chu likes men with a slender waist, so all his officials had one meal a day to control the waist".