Chinese Zero to Hero
《中国》第1集:春秋——双星闪耀儒道思想的开创China EP1丨MGTV

Channel: 芒果TV纪录片 MGTV Documentary
那是一个宁静的午后
That was a quiet afternoon
洛阳城外
outside Luoyang City
阳光透过树梢洒满林间
the sun was shining through the trees
远道而来的孔丘
Confucius, who came from afar
和他仰慕已久的李耳
had his last conversation with Li Er,
做了最后一次交谈
whom he had been admiring for a long time
年轻的孔丘滔滔不绝
The young Confucius spouted eloquent speeches
既慷慨
in a generous
又坦诚
and frank manner
讲述了他对时下风气的焦虑和疑惑
He talked about his anxiety and doubts about the current situation
也表达了他对理想社会的强烈渴望
and expressed his strong desire for an ideal society
李耳只是听着
Li Er just listened to him
不置可否
without saying anything When Confucius
临别之时
was about to leave
李耳终于打破沉默,说道
Li Er finally broke the silence by saying
仁人者送人以言
benevolent persons give others words
他缓缓的送给孔丘一段话
Slowly he made such a statement to Confucius
这段话的意义直到多年以后
The true meaning of this statement would not be comprehended by Confucius
孔丘才会真正领悟
until many years later
二人执礼作别
They bid farewell to each other Li Er
此刻
他们心中都明白
At that moment they all had a clear mind that
今生今世
for all the life
这样的会面与对谈
such a meeting and dialogue
很难再有
would hardly take place again
李耳注视着孔丘渐渐远去
Li Er watched Confucius going farther and farther
有一瞬间
他感觉这个年轻人,仿佛正在走进浩瀚星空
In a moment he felt that this young man was like stepping into the vast starry sky
清风徐来
With the breeze coming slowly
李耳长久伫立
Li Er stood there
一动不动
for a long time
这是发生在2000多年前的一段令人遐想无限的故事
This is a story that happened more than 2000 years ago, which may cause boundless reverie of people
那遥远而又清晰的光芒
The distant and clear rays of light
一直照耀到今天
have been shining till today Li Er Confucius Jie Yu Mo Di Mencius Zhuang Zhou Xun Kuang Li Si Han Fei Ying Zheng Liu Che Dong Zhongshu Sima Qian Ban Chao Sima Rui Wang Dao Tuoba Hong Xiao Yan Yuwen Tai Yang Jian Dugu Jialuo Abe no Nakamaro China "Spring and Autumn" The dynasty where Confucius lived is called "Zhou"
孔丘所处的朝代被称为“周”
At that time the human civilization in the Yellow River basin where Confucius lived
此时
had lasted for at least 3000 years
在孔丘生活的黄河流域
人类文明至少已经延续了3000年
Although in the early Zhou Dynasty the ancestors who lived on this piece of land
尽管周朝初期生活在这片土地上的先民
had already carved the four characters "I Settle in China (Central State)" on the bronze ritual wine vessel "He Zun"
已将“宅兹中国”这四个字刻在青铜礼器“何尊”上
Confucius had not known yet that the place he lived was what the later generations called
但孔丘尚未知晓
China
自己所在的地方就是后人所说的
中国
The bronze ritual wine vessel was the symbol of ritual system in the Zhou Dynasty
青铜礼器是周朝礼制的象征
As the foundation of the state Zhou Dynasty established a complete set of patriarchal system and ritual civilization
作为立国之本
周朝建立了一整套完备的宗法制度与礼乐文明
Tributary Sacrifice Funeral Marriage all have a standard instrumental system
朝贡、祭祀、丧葬、婚娶
The quantity and system of all music and dances, as well as bronze wares
都设有规范的仪制
were used to indicate
所用乐舞及青铜器物的数量和制式
the hierarchy of social status That also brought
被用来标志上下尊卑的等级身份
a stable and orderly life to the whole society
也为整个社会带来安定有序的生活
But in the age of Confucius the Zhou Dynasty had been established for more than 500 years
但到了孔丘生活的年代,周朝已建立500多年
Its national strength was declining The system of rites and music established by it gradually became slack and desolate
国力走向衰落
他所创立的礼乐制度也渐渐松弛荒疏
I Settle in China (Central State) Confucius was tall and he liked reading and travelling around
孔丘个子很高
According to the custom at that time
他喜欢读书
he was called
也喜欢四处游历
Kongzi
按照当时的习惯他被称呼为
Confucius' hometown was in the State of Lu
孔子
which was in the south of today's Shandong Province
孔子的家乡在鲁国,也就是今天的山东省南部一带
It was one of the vassal states enfeoffed by the Zhou Dynasty
那里是周朝分封的诸侯国之一
The enfeoffment system began in the early Zhou Dynasty Originally, it was to strengthen the local ruling
分封制始于周朝初期
but it led to segementation
原本是为了加强对地方的统治
Over few hundred years
结果却带来分裂
large or small more than 100 vassal states have emerged
数百年间
They took the emperor of the Zhou Dynasty as the common leader of the country
全国出现了大大小小一百多个诸侯国
他们以周天子为天下共主
Since King Ping of Zhou, for the avoidance of Quanrong's invasion moved the capital city to Luoyang
自从周平王为避犬戎之祸,将都城东迁至洛阳
Zhou Dynasty began its way to decline In the face of the current political situation that was in disorder and chaos
周王朝就开始走下坡路
Confucius, a man of the State of Lu who advocated rites
面对失序混乱的时局
felt confusion in his deep heart
自幼好礼的鲁国人孔子感到内心困惑
He had the idea of examining and understanding the society One of the places that Confucius wanted to visit most was
他萌生了考察社会的念头
the capital city of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty Luoyang
孔子最想去的一个地方就是东周的都城洛阳
The person he wanted to see most was Li Er who lived in Luoyang
他最想见的一个人,是住在洛阳的李耳
Later generations are more familiar with the other name of him Laozi
后人更熟悉他的另一个名字
老子
The opportunity came more like a surprise A carriage and a servant bestowed by King Zhao of Lu,
机会来临得稍显意外
the emperor of the State of Lu
鲁国国君鲁昭公赏赐的一架马车和一名随从
took Confucius to his dream land
带着孔子来到他的梦想之地
He was astonished by what came into his sight
眼前所见,让他深感震撼
In the year when Confucius was born Laozi was made
就在孔子出生那年
a keeper of archival records at the court of the Zhou Dynasty
老子担任了周朝的守藏室之史
which was an official historian in charge of national archives and classics equivalent to the director of the National Library
这是掌管国家档案典籍的史官
相当于国家图书馆馆长
In the Zhou Dynasty and the long history earlier knowledge was monopolized by the powerful class
周朝以及之前的漫长年月中
Academic classics were controlled by the royal family
知识一直被权贵阶层垄断,
Teaching and learning were only limited to
学术典籍由王室集中管控
imperial princes, court ministers and aristocracies
教习传授只限于王公大臣与贵族之间
while the lowest class had no access and right to learn
底层平民是没有学习的路径和权利的
The room of archival records that was kept by Laozi gathered almost all the essence of Chinese culture at that time
老子管理的守藏室
几乎集合了当时中国文化的全部精髓
Seeing these precious classics condensing the wisdom and spirit of predecessors
看到这些凝结着前人智慧和精神的珍贵经典
Confucius increased his admiration for the heyday of the rites in the Zhou Dynasty
更增加了孔子对周礼鼎盛时期的崇尚之心
Certainly he paid his visit here with a clear purpose
当然
He wanted to ask Laozi about rites
这一次拜访
他是带着明确的目的来的
and prove that his persistence in rites was correct
他想向老子请教“礼”
证明自己对“礼”的坚持没有错
What's more, he would also like to discuss with Laozi the solutions to many social problems at that time
他更想与老子探讨当下诸多社会问题的解决方案
expecting his own opinions to be recognized
期待自己的主张能获得认同
For Confucius, Laozi was not only a respectable elder
对孔子来说
but also a wise man with a lot of insights
老子不仅是值得尊敬的长者
更是一个见多识广的智者
He was controlling the core cultural resources of this country He was erudite and good at thinking
他掌握着这个国家最核心的文化资源
About life
学问渊博,而且善于思考
about nature even the entire universe he had his own thoughts
对人生、对自然乃至整个宇宙都有独到见解
Confucius talked about his yearning for a Zhou era with clear etiquette and ethical norms
孔子讲述了自己对礼制分明
hoping to save
伦理规范的周公时代的向往
the collapsing social order with that
希望藉此拯救正在崩塌的社会秩序
While Laozi called the law of all things in the world Dao
老子则将世间万物的运行法则称为“道”
he advocated the idea of Dao following the law of nature and people should act in accordance with the natural law
主张道法自然
taking no rash action
认为人要顺应自然规律行事
importuning for nothing He advocated the rule of inaction
不妄为
不强求
The rulers shall take the world by non action
他提倡无为而治
执政者应“以无事取天下”
Although their views were far apart
两个人的观点显然相去甚远
Tin the face of Laozi Confucius was always modest
但面对老子
He was not disappointed
孔子始终是谦逊的
as he came
他并不失望
asked and heard
他来了
and expressed
问了
他听到了
The most symbolic meeting and collision of thoughts
也表达了
in Chinese history
中国历史上最具象征意味的一次思想交汇与碰撞
like all the events that are significantly meaningful stayed quietly in the depth of time
如同所有意味深长的大事那样
安静地留在了时间深处
Leaving Luoyang Confucius embarked on his journey back to the State of Lu
告别洛阳
The world in front of him
孔子踏上返回路国的路程
became more and more unfamiliar to him
眼前的这个世界让他感到越来越陌生
Occasionally, the trace of the rites from the ancient times can be found on the street
市井街头
偶尔尚能发现上古之风的影子
which is the most fundamental compassion and care among people
那是人与人之间最基本的怜悯与关怀
But that seemed have lasted for only a short period of time
但那似乎只是短短的一瞬
it looked more like a reflection of the setting sun from the previous time
看起来更像是上一个时代的回光返照
With the loss of the emperor of Zhou's power the rules, regulations and moral standards
典章制度和道德规范
collapsed day by day
随着周天子权力的丧失而日渐崩塌
Everything fell in one direction unstoppably
一切都在不可阻挡地朝着一个方向坠落
The wars between the vassal states had destroyed not only a dynasty that lasted for hundreds of years
诸侯国的烽火正在摧毁的
but also the spiritual structure
不仅仅是一个存续了数百年的朝代
that kept this piece of land and the people unbroken and stable
还有让这片土地和人民绵延安稳的精神结构
The contention for power of the upper class was destroying layer by layer from the outside to the inside
上层的权力争夺,整一层一层地
the society and morality
由外及内地
破坏着世道人心
Nothing ever hurt Confucius more than that
没有什么比这更加刺痛孔子的内心
He couldn't tolerate the world sliding into the abyss in such way
他不能容忍天下就这样滑向深渊
He had to do something As a matter of fact
他必须要做点什么
before he visited Laozi and after he bid farewell to Laozi
事实上
Confucius had never changed his mind
在拜访老子之前和辞别老子之后
He would try every means to call for
孔子的想法一直没有改变过
and reinstate the rites of Zhou Dynasty
他要想方设法地呼唤并恢复周礼
He would put the fragments of ritual norms scattered on the ground back together bit by bit
他要把散落在地上的礼制碎片一点一点拼起来
and put them back into the hearts of people He certainly knew that
重新安放进世人的心中
it was a very difficult thing to do
他当然知道
这是一件非常困难的事
Everything started with education Confucius opened his door to the public
一切从教化做起
He broke the tradition of the Zhou Dynasty
孔子向众人敞开大门
that schools were only operated by the government and founded the first private school in Chinese history
他打破周王朝多年沿袭的官学传统
创办了中国历史上第一所私学
Knowledge was no longer the exclusive privilege of the aristocracies Confucius proposed that
知识不再是贵族独享的特权
there should be no discrimination in education
孔子提出有教无类
Regardless of his social status endowment one should have equal opportunities to receive education
无论出生贵贱,禀赋高下
As long as a little tuition was paid
都应该获得受教育的平等机会
even if there was only one piece of dried meat
只要交少许学费
people could come to him for reading books and studying
哪怕只有一条干肉
Soon a large number of
就可以到他这里读书学习
common people's children came for study
很快就有大批平民子弟前来求教
Confucius provided for his students six courses
孔子为学生们开设了礼、乐、射、御、书、数六门课程
rites, music, archery, chariot-riding, calligraphy and mathematics which were called by the later generations the "Six Arts"
这被后人称为“六艺”
The place where Confucius running the school had a nice name Xingtan
孔子办学的地点有个好听的名字
杏坛
This is an open school for the general public
这是一所面向平民大众的开放式学校
Confucius wanted to expand the rite in the temples that were in its decline to the countryside and among the people
孔子要把庙堂之上正在衰落的“礼”传播到村野民间
"Rites" was an important course that he taught It represented the order, norms and ethics
“礼”是他所教授的一门重要课程
and was the institutional link to maintain the operation of society
它代表着秩序、规范、伦理
and the inter-personal relationship
是维系社会运转、人与人关系的制度纽带
Not to look at things not conforming to the rites Not to listen to things not conforming to the rites Not to say things not conforming to the rites
非礼勿视
No to do things not conforming to the rites
非礼勿听
Confucius believed that rites
非礼勿言
are the standard for a person
非礼勿动
or even a country to behave
孔子认为
“礼”是一个人乃至一个国家行事的标准
On the basis of rites Confucius put forward his most important philosophy
以“礼”为基础
"Benevolence"
孔子提出了他最重要的哲学思想:仁
As for what is benevolence he had given different explanations
关于什么是“仁”
while the core of "benevolence" is "to love people"
他给出过不同的解释
which is the basic principle of being a man
而“仁”的核心,就是“爱人”
This teacher who was in his prime
是做人需要秉持的基本道理
had plentiful and surging thoughts
这位正值盛年的老师有着丰沛涌动的思想
and was full of enthusiasm for education Teaching benefits teachers as well as students Let knowledge flow like a clear spring
对教育充满热情,教学相长
When more and more people have the ability to think
让知识如清泉一般流动
exploring the mysteries and significance of life
当越来越多的人拥有思考能力
became a kind of self-consciousness of Chinese people
探问天地人生的奥义
开始成为中国人的一种自觉
Those days when Confucius recruited students widely were the rare happy time in Confucius' life
在杏坛广收门徒的日子
是孔子人生中少有的一段快乐时光
However what happened next interrupted his teaching career with a widely spread reputation
然而接下来发生的一件事
却中断了他正在声名远播的教学生涯
One day in 517 B.C. an unexpected news
公元前517年的一天
suddenly came
一个意想不到的消息突然传来
The king of the State of Lu, King Zhao escaped
鲁国国君鲁昭公逃走了
Confucius was so shocked, and he rushed to the capital city
孔子在震惊中赶往国都
The case of the incident was a game between a influential noble of the State of Lu, Ji Pingzi and the minister Hou Zhaobo
事情的起因是鲁国权贵季平子与大臣郈昭伯的一场游戏
These two had conflict because of cheating in the cockfight game
二人在斗鸡时相互舞弊引发矛盾
Hou Zhaobo complained to the king King Zhao wanted to take such opportunity
郈昭伯向国君告状
to weaken Ji Pingzi's strength and he sent troops to attack Ji Pingzi
鲁昭公想借此削弱季平子的势力,派兵攻打
While Ji Pingzi united with the other two noble families Mengsun and Shusun to counter attack
季平子联合鲁国另外两大贵族孟孙氏、叔孙氏反攻
King Zhao of Lu was defeated and forced to flee to the State of Qi for refuge
鲁昭公战败
Ji Pingzi announced
被迫逃往齐国避难
that he would take over the power of the State of Lu
季平子宣布
Everyone kept silent
鲁国大权由自己接管
If this can be tolerated, what cannot?
所有人都保持着沉默
是可忍,孰不可忍
Facing this military coup that went against the superiors Confucius was astonished
面对这场僭越犯上的军事政变
孔子无比惊愕
While his anger didn't change anything
他的愤怒
Witnessing the collapse of rites and music in the land of the State of Lu
没有带来任何改变
Confucius felt as if he had been hit by a heavy hammer on his heart
亲眼目睹鲁国国土上的礼崩乐坏
孔子的内心如受千钧重锤
He had always firmly believed in and spread the concept of monarch behaving as monarch and minister behaving as minister,
他一直坚定地信奉和传播
father behaving as father and son behaving as son
“君君 臣臣 父父 子子”的理念
A monarch should behave as a monarch while a minister should behave as a minister
国君要有国君的样子
臣子要有臣子的本分
What just happened in the State of Lu obviously went against what he believed in
而鲁国刚刚发生的一切,分明就是君不君,臣不臣
Where has the rites gone? and where has the benevolence gone?
礼在何处
Would this world be any better?
仁又在何处
这个世界还会变好吗
Confucius followed the King Zhao of Lu to the State of Qi where
孔子追随鲁昭公到了齐国
Confucius and his thoughts were not valued
在齐国,孔子和他的思想并未受到重视
A few years later he went back to the State of Lu
几年后,他重新回到鲁国
In 510 B.C. The King Zhao of Lu
公元前510年
who once gave a carriage and entourage for Confucius to visit Laozi
那个曾经赠送马车、随从
died in exile
成全孔子去见老子的鲁昭公
死在流亡的路上
In that year Confucius was 42 years old
这一年
孔子42岁
The fate of people living in the great era was always beyond the control of oneself including the emperor
大时代里的个人命运总是由不得自己做主
History was moving towards the next crossing
包括天子在内
The days when the emperor of Zhou Dynasty commanded the world
历史正在走向下一个路口
had forever gone The vassal states ruled their land independently
周天子号令天下的时代,一去不返
not following the order of the Emperor They waged wars against each other, without a stop
诸侯国群雄蜂起,割据一方
for land, wealth and power
为了土地、财富和权力,相互间攻伐不断
Before the birth of Confucius there were five vassal states that announced their domination successively
在孔子出生之前,已先后有五个诸侯国依次称霸
The struggle had been intensifying However, it was farther away from the revival of
争斗愈演愈烈
rites and musics that Confucius wanted
距离孔子想要的礼乐复兴
却愈行愈远
Confucius, who returned to the State of Lu had been dormant for a long time
重新回到鲁国的孔子蛰伏了很久
while his students Zilu, Ran Qiu and more had stepped into the political arena one after another
他的弟子子路、冉求等
demonstrating their ambitions
已相继步入政坛,各自施展抱负
Confucius, while teaching had been watching the changes quietly
孔子一面教书,一面静观其变
Over ten years passed, slowly but quickly
十数载光阴过得很慢
Would the State of Lu need him?
也很快
Would his political ideal be realized?
鲁国会需要他吗
He had been waiting
他的政治理想能实现吗
Finally, one day
他在等待
he received the invitation from the King Ding of Lu, the new king of the State of Lu
终于有一天
他等来了鲁国新任国君鲁定功的邀请
In 501 B.C. Confucius, at his age of 51
公元前501年
was appointed as the local official of Zhongdu of the State of Lu
51岁的孔子被任命为鲁国中都的地方官:中都宰
County Magistrate of Zhongdu equivalent to a mayor of today A year later, he was promoted to Sikong
相当于现在的市长
in charge of public works
一年后他升任司空,主管工程建设
and then to Da Sikou in charge of justice
接着又升任大司寇,主管司法
At the age of 56 he acted as the prime minister of the State of Lu in his position of Da Sikou
56岁这年
他以大司寇一职,代理鲁国国相
Confucius reached the peak of his political career
孔子走到了从政生涯的巅峰
After three months of participating in the governance of the state the internal and foreign affairs of the State of Lu had improved significantly
参与治理国政三个月
People lived and worked in peace and contentment
鲁国的内政外交就大有起色
Everyone abode by rites and laws Lost articles are always returned
百姓安居乐业,各守礼法
and guests felt at home
四处路不拾遗,宾至如归
However, Confucius himself was in a dilemma both internally and externally
但孔子自身的处境却变得内外交困
Confucius didn't forget the threat of the noble to the king He told the King Ding
孔子没有忘记当年贵族势力对国君的威胁
that the officials should have no weapons in their possession
他对鲁定公说
and the senior official should not own
臣子没有私藏的武器
any city with a circumference over 300 feet
大夫不能拥有周长三百丈的城邑
In order to conform to the rites he ordered to demolish the cities of the three
为符合礼制
most powerful aristocracies in the State of Lu
他下令拆毁鲁国最有权势的三大贵族的城邑
and it was almost inevitable to be opposed This action, which was called "Demolishing Three Cities"
遭到反对几乎是必然的
was abandoned halfway
这个被称为“堕三都”的行动半途而废
However, the conflict between Confucius and the powerful noble had already taken its root
孔子与权贵间的矛盾却已然埋下
The good situation in the State of Lu also attracted the attention of the states in neighborhood
而鲁国的良好局面也引发了邻国的关注
The State of Qi, which shared borders with the State of Lu was quite concerned about what Confucius was doing would make the State of Lu the one to dominate among all states
东北面接壤的齐国十分不安
Their strategy was very simple
担心孔子的作为会令鲁国称霸
That was to try to prevent Confucius from being engaged in politics
他们采取的对策很简单
See those in power
就是设法阻止孔子主政
falling into the stratagem of the State of Qi, step by step
眼见当权者一步步陷入齐国的计谋
Confucius was deeply disappointed So he left the State of Lu again
孔子深感失望
于是
他再一次离开鲁国
Confucius that set his foot on the journey again had already been 56 years old He wasn't in a bad mood though
重新踏上旅途的孔子已经56岁了
Now that the State of Lu couldn't undertake
但他的心情并不算太坏
his political expectation he would find another king to work for
既然鲁国承担不起自己的政治寄托
And this time he was not on the way alone
那就另寻明主吧
With a group of students following him
而且这一次他并不是一个人上路
at least he felt no longer alone
一众弟子相随,至少让他不再孤独
With hope and ideal in mind the hard journey was also full of romance
怀抱着希望和理想
The goal of these preachers was so clear
辛苦的行程也就不乏浪漫色彩
that they traveled to different states to spread widely
这群布道者目标明确
the thoughts of "benevolence" and "rites"
他们游走各国,就是为了广播“仁”和“礼”的主张
which they hoped could be adopted by the state rulers
寄望能为执政者所用
Their first stop was the State of Wei As they were badmouthed by someone in front of the king
他们首先来到卫国
they left in a hurry after only ten months of stay
因为被人在国君面前说了坏话
On his way to the State of Chen
只待了十个月便匆匆离去
Confucius was put into jail by the people in Kuang who mistook him as enemy
前往陈国途中
孔子被匡地的人误视为仇人而身陷囹圄
His students panicked Confucius comforted them by telling them "Although King Wen of Zhou was gone
弟子恐慌
the culture of rites and music of Zhou
孔子安慰他们说
was still with us
周文王虽然没有了
If God wanted to destroy Rites of Zhou
但周的礼乐文化不都还在我们身上吗
he would not let us have mastery of it
上天若想灭周礼,便不会让我们掌握
If God didn't want to destroy the Rites of Zhou what could the people in Kuang do to me?"
如果上天不想灭周礼
那匡人又能拿我如何
In the State of Song Confucius took his students to study etiquette under a big tree
到了宋国
After knowing about it
孔子带着弟子在大树下研习礼仪
Sima of the State of Song attempted to harm them so he cut down the big tree
宋国司马听说后想要加害他们
His students urged Confucius to leave quickly
就把大树砍了
but Confucius stayed still calm
弟子催促老师快点离开
Now that God bestowed me with virtues
孔子却依旧坦然
what could he do to me?
上天既然赋予了我德行
那他又能把我怎么样呢
At his arrival at the State of Zheng Confucius accidentally separated himself with his students
抵达郑国时,孔子不慎和弟子走散
and was left alone at the east gate of the outer city Someone told his student Zigong that
独自一人被落在外城东门
there was a man at the east gate thin and tired
有人告诉他的学生子贡,说东门有个人
like a homeless cur
瘦瘠疲惫,好像一条丧家之狗
When Zigong found Confucius he passed on the words of others to Confucius
子贡找到孔子后
but Confucius was brought to laugh
将旁人的描述转述给他
"Right, right
却引来孔子哈哈大笑
I am like a homeless cur
然哉 然哉
That man is correct saying so"
说我像丧家之狗,那个人说的很对啊
Along the way on the vast expanse of open ground sometimes they had no idea about the way
这一路茫茫四野
sometimes they felt extremely tired
有迷路不知前途的时候
and sometimes it was rainy and stormy
也有人困马乏,风雨交加的时候
They were robbed of property and vehicles by buglars and they were insulted
他们被盗贼抢走过财物和车辆
and ridiculed by a lot of people Sometimes even children
也被很多人侮辱过,嘲笑过
laughed at them
有时候连小孩子都会讥讽他们
Confucius had passed his age of sixty He was an old man
孔子已过耳顺之年
This period of his life in exile
他已经是个老人了
was named by the later generation in a leisure way
他所经历的这段颠沛流离
Traveling Around the States
被后人取了一个轻松的名字
Perhaps only Confucius himself
周游列国
and his students
其中的甘苦况味
would understand the joys and sorrows of it
恐怕只有孔子和他的弟子们才能体会
They left their footprints in the states of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty These people sometimes were ragged
东周列国留下了他们的足迹
and looked like beggars
这群人时而衣衫褴褛,形同乞丐
Sometimes talked on the music and gave directions about ruling states Maybe
时而鼓琴论道,指点天下
there was nothing wrong with that name given leisurely
或许那个轻松的名字并没有取错
No matter there was storm and rain the strings of Confucius never stopped along the way
风声也好
雨声也好
孔子的弦歌一路不断
He faced every setback with the rational mean but he never wavered
他以理性的中庸之道
面对每一次挫折却从未动摇
He was a brave man who had been defeated but kept fighting repeatedly
他是一个屡败屡战的勇者
Though in the eyes of ordinary people Confucius was so frustrated for all his talent
尽管在世人看来
and even felt down and out
孔子是如此的怀才不遇,失意落魄
He paid his visits to one king after another and was rejected by one king and another
他拜访了一个又一个国君
被一个又一个国君拒绝
The kings cared about one thing only at the time
君王们此刻只关心一件事
how to become the next supreme hegemon Obviously, rites and benevolence
如何才能成为下一个霸主
couldn't help them to open up more territory
礼制仁爱,显然无法帮助他们
and achieve their hegemony in an instant
立时开疆拓土,即刻成就霸业
It was a long journey without a known destination
这是一次漫长的、不知终点在哪里的旅途
Such a group of people walked and stopped for a few years
一行人走走停停
They had no plan
就这样走过了匆匆数年
about where to go
究竟该往哪里去
Each departure of them
他们并没有计划
may be due to sudden war
每一次出发
or may be because of the kings that were capricious and changeable
可能是因为突发的战乱
or the counter-balance of power of the vassal states
也可能是因为任性而善变的君王
as well as the emerging new opportunities
因为诸侯国力量的此消彼长
and calls
以及随之冒出来的新的机会和召唤
They seemed to have no direction under their feet but they did have direction in their mind
他们的脚下似乎没有方向
Confucius, the idealist
但心中却有方向
practiced his ideals in a nearly stubborn way of acting
理想主义者孔子用近乎固执的行动去实践理想
which had gone far beyond the meaning of success or failure
这远远超出了成败本身的意义
In 489 B.C. had been wandering for several years outside
公元前489年
Confucius encountered the most serious crisis in his life
在外游走数年的孔子
遭遇了人生中最严重的一次危机
The thing sounded ridiculous the State of Wu attacked the State of Chen
事情听起来很有些荒谬
and the State of Chu sent troops to help
吴国攻击陈国,楚国发兵相救
Originally this was just an ordinary war waged between the vassal states When King Zhao of Chu heard that Confucius
原本这只是诸侯国间的普通一战
was right at the border of the State of Chen and the State of Cai
楚昭王听说孔子此时正好在陈蔡两国交界的地方
he sent people to invite him The officials who's in charge in both the States, after knowing this
就派人去请他
were much panicked
陈蔡两国的主事大夫得知后,非常恐慌
They didn't take Confucius' advice before But they knew very clearly
之前他们没有听取孔子的诤言
what Confucius being sarcastic was right to the point
心里却知道孔子所讥讽的句句切中时弊
If such a talented person was made to serve the State of Chu that would be very harmful to themselves
这样的贤人如果为楚国所用
恐怕会对自己不利。
In order to prevent Confucius from going to the State of Chu the State of Chen and the State of Cai sent people
为了不让孔子去楚国
to encircle Confucius and his students in the wilderness
陈蔡两国派人将孔子一行围堵在荒野之中
Their way was blocked and they had insufficient food Many of his students fell ill
行动受阻,食物不足
and each one had pale look on their face
弟子们病倒了很多
一个个脸上露出饥苦之色
One day Two days three days there was no sign that the siege would be relaxed
一天
两天
三天
Their food was about to be cut off
围困没有丝毫放松的迹象
Everyone was too hungry to stand up
粮食就要断绝,大家都饿得站不起来了
Only Confucius acted as if nothing had happened He preached and talked about theories
只有孔子却像什么事都没有发生一样
recited books and played music as usual
照常讲经说道,诵书弹琴
Some of his students couldn't hold on and left in twos and threes
一些弟子支撑不下去,三三两两地离开了
Zilu was very unpleasant with this groundless disaster He couldn't help asking Confucius
子路对这个无望之灾很是不悦
Could a man of virtue be stuck in such a dilemma?
他忍不住去问老师
Confucius replied
君子也会有如此困窘的时候吗
even if the man of virtue was in a dilemma
孔子回答他
he would still have his own persistence
君子即使身陷困境,也会有自己的坚守
If an amoral would encounter any dilemma he would only act wildly against law and public opinion
小人若遇到困境,就只会胡作非为
Although the answer that Confucius gave to Zilu was as firm and clear as ever
虽然给子路的答案一如往常的坚定明确
the distress this time was life-threatening and different from usual
但这一次的困厄
实在性命攸关,非比寻常
In fact, Confucius had his doubts He called for all his students
孔子的心中也并非没有疑问
and asked them the same question one by one
他逐一召来各个弟子,问了他们同一个问题
"Is there anything wrong with my proposition? Why did I get to such situation?"
我的主张难道有什么不对吗
我为什么会落到这个地步呢
Zilu said "Maybe we don't have enough benevolence so others don't trust us
子路说
也许是我们的仁德还不够,所以别人不信任我们
Maybe we don't have enough wisdom so they won't let go of us."
也许是我们的智慧还不足,所以别人不肯放行
Confucius refuted him "If benevolent people will all be believed by others
孔子反驳他
how could Boyi and Shuqi
如果仁者一定会让人相信
be starved to death in Shouyang Mountain? If wise people could walk without obstruction
那伯夷、叔齐怎么会饿死在首阳山
how could the prince Bigan have his heart taken out by King Zhou?"
如果智者就能畅行无阻
那王子比干怎么会被纣王剖心
Zigong then replied by saying "Master's theory is too broad
子贡接着前来应答,他说
and significant so no state would have room to accommodate you
夫子的学说太渊博、太宏大了
Could Master lower your standard a little bit?
所以没有国家容得下你
夫子可以稍微降低一下标准吗
Confucius criticized him "You are not studying knowledge well
孔子批评他
but lowering yourself to cater to others
不好好修习学问,反而降低自己去迎合
You are at such a low level with your ambition."
你的志向太不远大了
The last one who responded was Yan Hui who was the most favorite student of Confucius
最后一个作答的是孔子最喜欢的弟子颜回
Yan Hui's words were spoken right into the heart of Confucius "Although we are not accepted by all the states
颜回的话说到了他心里
what would be the matter?
虽然不被天下接受,又有什么关系呢
It would be our shame if we don't learn Master's theory well While if we learn Master's theory well
我们没修好夫子之道是我们的耻辱
but are not adopted by the state rulers it would be the shame of such state rulers"
我们修好了夫子之道却未被采纳
After hearing Yan Hui's words
是当权者的耻辱
Confucius smiled happily
孔子听完欣然而笑
Another day passed
时间又过去了一天
the last bit of gruel to satisfy hunger was all eaten Some students of Confucius that lost their hope
最后一点充饥的稀粥已经见底
chose to leave one after another
陆续又有看不到希望的弟子选择离去
This might be the moment in Confucius' life when he doubted the most of himself
这或许是孔子一生中对自己最为怀疑的时刻
Both the dilemma in reality and in his heart surrounded him
现实的困境和内心的困境一起包围了他
Communication with his students was more like his questioning of himself
和弟子们的交流,更像是他的自我拷问
"Is there anything wrong with my proposition? Why did I get to such situation?"
我的主张难道有什么不对
我为什么会落到这个地步呢
He should have asked himself such questions for countless times and should have
他应该无数次问过自己这样的问题
answered himself for countless times
也应该无数次地回答过自己
Looking back at the way he had passed he recalled Laozi's words at departure on that afternoon
回望走过的道路
他想起了多年前洛阳城外的那个项下午
outside Luoyang city many years ago which seemed to have predicted the ordeal he would suffer
老子的临别赠言
Laozi said
仿佛预言了他必将遇到的磨难
"The person who is intelligent and good at observing is close to death
老子说
because he likes to talk about others."
聪明深察之人离死亡很近
"A knowledgeable and eloquent man is often in danger
因为他喜欢议论别人
because he likes to expose the shortcomings of others."
博学善辩者常常招致危险
At the moment of danger
因为他喜欢揭人之短
and when death was approaching
在招致危险并且离死亡很近的这一刻
Confucius fully understood Laozi's heartfelt intention
孔子完全理解了老子的苦心
He felt that he was never so close to Laozi
他觉得自己从来没有离老子这么近过
Another dark night came Confucius, who had been encircled for days
又一个黑夜降临
hoped to tell the future from the mysterious images
被困数日的孔子期望能从神秘的卦象中看到未来
If everyone had his own destiny what would be his?
如果每个人都有自己的天命
他的天命到底是什么呢
Laozi, who advocated that everything should be taken as it should be had planned to resign from office and
主张一切顺其自然的老子,已经打算辞官隐世,云游四方
travel around the world That was the ideal of Laozi
那是老子的理想
While Confucius was always concerned about the real world
孔子却始终关心着现实世界
"Do what you know you can't do" was the destiny picked by Confucius at his own will
知其不可为而为之
正是孔子主动选择的天命
On the seventh day of the siege Zigong who was sent by Confucius to seek help from the King Zhao of Chu
被围困的第七天
eventually came back with the troops of the State of Chu
孔子派去向楚昭王求救的子贡
终于带着楚国的兵马回来了
At dawn all the hunger, hardship, struggle
天亮了
doubt, forbearance, grievance and resentment
此前所有的饥饿、困苦、挣扎
disappeared in an instant
怀疑、隐忍、委屈、愤懑
顷刻间烟消云散
Seven days and nights of seige was like a rebirth for Confucius
整整七天七夜恍若重生
There was sayings by later generations that if Confucius was never born
后世有言
The history of China would keep being in long lasting darkness
上天若没有降生孔子
中国的历史将万古如长夜
The seven day siege of Confucius was like a fable in the history of thoughts
七日之围
如同一个思想史上的寓言
Confucius never stopped looking for his way out
孔子从未停止寻找出路
for the besieged students of his for himself
为受困的弟子
and for the besieged China
为受困的自己
也为受困的中国
After getting out of the siege Confucius planned to go to the State of Chu
摆脱围困后
and the King of Chu had prepared
孔子打算前往楚国
to enfeoff 700 Li of land to him
楚昭王已准备将700里地分封给他
Would they have a foothold in that big state in the south?
那个南方的大国会是他们可以立足的地方吗
Having been through the test of life and death together the teacher and his students cherished more each section of the way that they've traveled
共同面对过生死考验
让师生们更加珍惜同行的每一段路
Confucius was more and more like a spiritual leader
孔子越来越像是一个精神领袖
They had no idea that in the palace of the State of Chu a dialogue was taking place
他们还不知道
楚国的王宫里正发生一段对话
Some ministers proposed to the King Zhao of Chu that when the ancestors of the State of Chu granted the land
大臣向楚昭王提出
it was only 50 Li
楚国祖先受封时
Confucius had been always reiterating the laws of Zhou Dynasty
封地只有50里
If he was appointed
孔子总在重申周朝法度
how could the State of Chu
倘若任用他
still have the land of thousands of Li in a dignified manner?
楚国还怎么能堂堂正正的拥有现在这方圆几千里之地呢
To have lands granted plus the talented students that he had Such a Confucius would not be a blessing of the State of Chu
给孔子封地
加上贤能的弟子辅佐
King Zhao of Chu had to give up on it
这可不是楚国之福
Before long this king of Chu who appreciated Confucius' talent
楚昭王于是作罢
passed away
没过多久
这位赏识孔子才能的楚国国君就死了
Confucius' will was disillusioned again
意望又一次幻灭
When passing by a ferry Confucius met a man who he would never forget in his life
途经一处渡口时
孔子遇到了一个让他此生都很难忘掉的人
His name was Jie Yu He looked perverse
这个人名叫接舆
Jie Yu People called him "Madman of Chu"
看起来行为乖张
人们称他为“楚狂人”
Jie Yu passed by in front of Confucius with a swagger sang while walking
接舆大摇大摆的地从孔子面前走过
Phoenix, Phoenix
一边走,一边唱
why virtue declining so far?
凤兮凤兮
What happened in the past is irretrievable
何德之衰
you may still catch up with the forthcoming
往者不可谏,来者犹可追
Phoenix, Phoenix why your virtue declining so far?
凤凰啊凤凰
What happened in the past is irretrievable
你的德行为什么衰落至此
you may still catch up with the forthcoming
过去的已经无法挽回
未来的还可以迎头赶上
Confucius wanted to stop him and talk to him for a few words but Jie Yu didn't give him the chance
孔子很想叫住他,跟他聊上几句
and left without looking back
但接舆没有给他机会
In many interpretations
头也不回就走掉了
Jie Yu was the one who came
在很多解读里
to give Confucius a blow and tip
接舆是那个来给孔子当头棒喝的人
Although the past era was beautiful it was the past after all
过去的时代虽然美好,但终究是要过去了
It was better to embrace the future After being besieged by the State of Chen and Cai
不如面对未来吧
Confucius didn't care about many things
经过了陈蔡之为的孔子对很多事都不在意了
Perhaps it was the last sentence that Jie Yu sang touched him indeed
触动他的
That's all, that's all
或许是接舆唱的最后一句
People in politics now
已而已而,今之从政者,殆矣
are in danger Meaning "That's all, that's all People in politics now are in danger."
罢了罢了,现在从政的人都岌岌可危
Confucius had lost his enthusiasm for politics After that he refused the invitation for governance from Zilu
孔子已经失去对政治的热情
who was serving as an official in the State of Wei
之后,他拒绝了在卫国做官的弟子子路的执政之情
He also warned Zilu that if the reason is not justified, the words can not be right
并告诫子路
if the words are not right, things can not be done the right way
名不正则言不顺
If things are not done the right way, rites and music can not be revived
言不顺则事不成
事不成则礼乐不兴
Perhaps the things that he had never forgot were rites and music
他心中念念不忘的
也许从来就只有礼乐这一件事
In the eyes of the ordinary people how could Confucius not be a madman?
在世人眼中,孔子又何尝不是一位狂人呢
After 14 years of his traveling around the states Confucius finally went back to the State of Lu
周游列国14年后
and to Xingtan that used to belong to him
孔子终于回到鲁国
Most of the students of his who followed him to travel in those years
回到属于他的杏坛
had already been in politics
当年跟随他出游的弟子多已学成出仕
Confucius continued to recruite students and teach in his hometown It is said that
孔子在家乡继续开课授徒
he had over 3000 students among whom 72 became known as wise men
相传他一生弟子三千
有贤人七十二
But all these could not comfort his loneliness when he was at his old age
但这些都难以安慰暮年的孤独
Sad things came one after another
悲伤的事情一件件接踵而至
Yan Hui, his favorite student suddenly died
他最心爱的弟子颜回突然病死
Zilu, who had accompanied him for the longest time died in the war His only son
陪伴他最久的子路死于战乱
was gone before him
唯一的儿子也先他而去
In the last few years of his life Confucius indulged in The Book of Changes Repeatedly, he studied the Book of Changes so hard
生命的最后几年里,孔子沉迷于《易》
that the leather rope of the bamboo slips
他翻来覆去反复研读
became broken for a couple of times
以至于编联竹简的皮绳断了多次
He seemed to have seen more complex universe and nature beyond individual life
他似乎从中看到了
超越个体人生的更加复杂的宇宙和自然
This book, which he had a glimpse at in Laozi's library more than 40 years ago
这部40多年前在老子的图书馆里一扫而过的着作
Now he could finally understand its mystery
现在
他终于能体会到其中玄妙
He finally understood Laozi
他也终于
懂得了老子
In 479 B.C. Confucius, who had been seriously ill for a long time
公元前479年
had the chance to meet his student Zigong
病重已久的孔子等来了弟子子贡
He got up slowly from the sickbed and went at Zigong
他从病榻上慢慢起身
with the last bit of his strength
迎上前去
shouted from a distance
用尽最后一丝力气
Why did you come so late?
远远地冲子贡喊道
你为何来的这样迟啊
On that year Confucius was 73 years old
这一年
孔子73岁
Confucius passed away seven days later In the boundless years once on a warm spring evening
岁月苍茫
Confucius went to the bank of river by himself
曾经
在一个温暖的春日黄昏
Looking at the endless flow of the river
孔子独自来到大河岸边
He uttered a deep sigh
看着川流不息的河水
that time passed like this
他发出了一声悠远的感叹
Day by day
逝者如斯夫,不舍昼夜
Time goes like the running water Confucius knew
时间像流水一样消逝
the limit and regret of life
孔子知道生命的有限和遗憾
Throughout his life even Confucius himself didn't realize
终其一生
how grand his mission was
连孔子自己都未必意识到
他肩负的使命有多么宏阔
He lobbied all the states with his own strength and then created a set of
他以一己之力游说天下
unique ideological system which was called by the later generations
进而创生了一套独特的思想体系
as "Confucianism"
后世称为“儒家”的学说,由此开启
The six works of Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites
他所编撰修订的
Book of Music, Book of Changes, Spring and Autumn Annals
《诗》《书》《礼》《乐》《易》《春秋》六部著作
that he complied or revised were regarded as classic works of Confucianism
被奉为儒学经典
Throughout his life Confucius was criticized and questioned a lot and he took too many misunderstandings
孔子的一生遭受了太多的非议和质疑
He wasn't successful
承担了太多误解
as he expected in his life Instead, he even failed time and time again
他在生前并没有获得期望中的成功
However,
甚至一再失败
this may be the glory of an idealist
然而
这正是一个理想主义者的光荣
It was his thoughts that were not understood needed or appreciated at that time
正是他的那些在当时不被理解、不被需要、不被欣赏的思想
that deeply influenced the following two thousands of years of China
深深地影响了后世中国两千年
These thoughts were like an eternal river nurtured generations
这些思想
如同一条亘古不绝的大河
of Chinese people
滋养了一代又一代中国人
Day by day
川流不息
不舍昼夜
A ritually ordered era ended Later generations named this era with two characters
一个彬彬有礼的时代结束了
"Spring and Autumn"
后人用“春秋”二字为这个时代命名
At almost the same period mankind ushered in an extrordinary thought explosion
几乎在同一时期
人类迎来了一次非凡的思想大爆发
with many great thinkers coming up
伟大的思想家集中涌现
In ancient Greece, there were Socrates Plato
古希腊有苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里士多德
and Aristotle In Israel, there were the prophets of Jewish and in ancient India, there was Sakyamuni
以色列有犹太教的先知们
The propositions and ethical principles
古印度有释迦牟尼
proposed by them created different cultural traditions
他们提出的思想命题与伦理原则
Some people call that period
缔造了不同的文化传统
"the axial age" of human civilization
有人将其称为人类文明的“轴心时代”
In such a great era on the land of China in the east of Asia
就在那个伟大的时代
Laozi and Confucius were shining like twin stars
在亚洲东部的中国
Standing on the origin of Chinese history of thoughts
老子和孔子双星闪耀
they became the great mountain that later generations look up to
他们站在中国思想史的原点
成为后来者仰望的高山
In the years where there was no more Laozi and Confucius seasons changed
在没有了老子与孔子的岁月里
and people planted in spring and harvested in autumn The earth
寒暑易节,春种秋收
was still running in its own rhythm
大地依旧在按照自己的节奏运行
History in its ups and downs continued to move forward
历史也在跌宕起伏的纷争中
继续向前伸展
思想在传承中产生变革
思想在争论中变得强大
在百家争鸣的时代
中国人朝气勃发
许多质朴而深邃的见解逐渐生根发芽,蓬勃律动
为中国文化
注入了长久的自信从容